More Images from the Varpapuu Loom

loom piecesThe adventure continues in the restoration of the Finnish tapestry loom, gifted to me by weaver Christine Hensolt.  There were so many bits and pieces, and trying to determine what went where was quite the engineering adventure.  Fortunately, the beams had been labeled in pencil to note which went where and right and left.  But some pieces were a mystery or were simply missing.

My Grandpa is currently working in his wood shop to turn new handle pegs for the two rachet tensioners (like the one shown at left).  My dad Steve helped with cutting threaded rod and even bolt spacers for rebuilding the structure.  And Mom helped me make sense of the jointed elements that actuate the heddles, as well as troubleshoot what to do about the missing threaded rod in the upper right structural beam.

So, in all, it was a team effort to bring this loom back to life.  Here are a few more images as the process unfolded.

warp beam

Here, the frame is roughly set together, with the warp beam at the top.  You can see the holders that will carry the jointed heddle system.

setting heddles

Now the heddles are being threaded onto their rods.  The reed and beater bar are in place, as is the cloth beam below.

finished heddles

Finally, the heddles are finished and tied to the foot pedals.  It’s a little stiff, so I’ll grease the skids with some beeswax and see if that helps.  It should be nearly ready to weave again!

 

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Restoring a Varpapuu Tapestry Loom

Christine and FriendsYou really never know what a day will bring.  On a otherwise ordinary July day, a group of ladies arrived for lunch at Farmstead Creamery, led by Jane (pictured center) one of the authors who’d be featured in our Spoken Word series.  Along for the adventure was Christine Hensolt (pictured right), originally from Germany.  Farmstead Creamery is also my tapestry and textile arts gallery, and the pieces caught Christine’s eye.  This sparked conversation about our shared interests in weaving and fiber arts.

Christine taught home economics, but now that her husband has passed, she is ready to downsize and let some of her things go on to have new lives with other people.  “I have this loom,” she relayed eagerly.  “Well, actually I have two.  But I gave this one away once and the lady gave it back to me.  I just don’t have room for it anymore.  It’s so big.”

“What kind of a loom is it?” I asked.  “Do you have a picture?”  While I do already have something like 15 looms in my collection, scattered from studio to house to sun porch, I did share my long-term goal of having a smalls school to teach weaving, especially tapestry.

“You know what,” Christine announced resolutely.  “I’m going to just give them to you.  It’s hard to find young people who care about this anymore.  I think that these looms should go to you.”

Molly with varpapuu loom

The girlfriends conspired and decided to pack up the pickup truck with all the pieces and bring them over the next week, which also happened to be Fiber Fest at Farmstead Creamery.  As they pulled in, I backed up our old trusty Jeep, and we transferred the pieces from one vehicle to the next, despite the wind and light rain.

“You can tell them apart by the color of the wood,” Christine advised.  “The light-colored one is the tapestry loom, while the darker one is a floor loom that belonged to my husband.  Both are from Europe.  Oh, and you’ll need these,” she added, handing me a handful of heddle leashes.  “I really hope you can use these looms.”

I later transferred the parts and pieces onto palates in our garage, trying to make sense of the “who’s who” in all the jumble.  There was also a much-needed a thorough cleaning of the elements before I could get started.

I decided to tackle the tapestry loom first, which still bore the maker’s sticker of Varpapuu from Finland.  After some extensive research, I could still find no trace of the company, let alone any sort of manual or diagram for assembly.  So I headed to Google Image Search and came across a couple of immensely helpful images from Molly Elkind’s tapestry blog.  Based in Georgia, Molly’s an avid weaver and teacher of tapestry, as well as a fellow member of the American Tapestry Alliance.

two tapestry looms

Soon we were corresponding as I was slowly working out assembly and scrubbing through buckets of “Mop n’ Glo.”  Molly had, since the blog post from a few years ago, sold the loom to another weaver (Debra) in Maine.  From the pieces I had, comparing them with Molly and Debra’s photos, I could get a sense for what was missing or what needed replacing in order to bring the loom back into working order.

As the uprights went into place and the bracing was added, it was apparent that this loom had a sizable footprint–the same as my Gobelin tapestry loom and nearly just as tall.  The construction method, however, is markedly different, even though both have a vertical make and top and bottom rollers.  The Leclerc Gobelin loom is built like a box cage, with the tapestry stretching from warp to cloth beam in the center.  For the Varpapuu, the warp goes from the beam up over a top crossbar, then down the front of the loom, across another crossbar just above your knees (when sitting at the loom) and then to the cloth beam.  The Varpapuu also has a jointed, foot pedal-actuated heddle system, instead of the stick shed and leashes system of the Gobelin.  (At left is shown looking down on the two looms side-by-side, with the Varpapuu on the right.)

The Gobelin does have locks on both ends of both rollers and an extra screw-like tension adjuster on the cloth beam, plus additional corner bracing, as compared with the Varpapuu.  I’ll likely save larger or higher tension projects for this loom, but I am curious about what it will be like working with the new heddle system instead of picking up the sheds by hand.  It might help the weaving work faster.

Making sense of the leashes alone was quite the task, all piled and knotted together.  Instead of being formed like my floor looms of rigid metal with an eyelet in the middle, these were of string with a metal eyelet piece.  The strings thread onto two rods (one set for each shed), which then inset into slider bars that are jointed to the crossbeam that is run by the foot pedals.  The whole piece, when not on the loom, looks very marionette like.  So slowly, carefully, I began to organize the leashes and stringing them onto the heddle bars–all 401 of them!threading leashes

Sourcing nuts and washes, replacing bolts and missing wooden pegs, remaking the mount for the foot pedals with appropriate spacers, taking off the old, rusty chain and replacing it with strong nylon cording–bit, by, bit the loom was coming back to life.

As I worked, I wondered what pieces the loom had woven.  What was it’s story?  How did it make it all the way here from Finland?  I shall have to ask Christine more about its past, once I can share the studio with her and the fully-restored loom she was willing to give me.  More photos to come!

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Designing a Student Project

punch needle demonstrationI enjoy teaching fiber arts.  There’s that magical moment when things click for the student, and that spark of joy as the project comes together.  As I move towards teaching in the medium of punch needle rug hooking, I wondered for a while what would make a good project for a multi-day intensive class.  Personally, I’ve never been a fan of “sampler” projects–I always wanted to get right into making something appreciable as a finished work that was also a good learning tool.

Some instructors start students in punch needle rug hooking using an embroidery hoop as the frame.  But it’s hard to keep good tension on an embroidery hoop, which equals frustration and a less-than-desirable outcome.  I like for students to work with full-scale materials and equipment.  If you’re wondering whether it’s something you would like, come catch a demonstration!  If you’re ready to dive in and be a student of the medium, let’s get started.

So, back to planning a project that would be approachable yet interesting for students.  My starter frame (the Oxford gripper strip 18×18) works great for projects that are 14×14 inches (they stretch out to 15×15), which works out well as a pillow cover.  Why not!  Not only would students learn how to use a frame and punch with the tool but also how to finish the edges and attach it to an object (the pillow) in a way that transformed the project into a useful and aesthetic piece.  That’s precisely what fiber arts are so good at doing!

mandala patternWhen conceptualizing the design, I wanted to include straight lines, curved lines, points, and angles of different degrees.  Perusing my stash of adult coloring books (which are a great place for gleaning design ideas), I decided on a floral mandala as a great means for including all of these elements.  Now it was time to draft a design.

If you’re one of those who cries “But I can’t draw a circle!,” fear not, for here’s a design hack.  Go to the kitchen.  There’s perfect circles everywhere.  Here, I started by building out from the center, first outlining the border of the design.  Then I drew the design into quarters (like a window) and on the diagonals with the help of a yard stick.  Using this basic grid, I then started in on my circle guidelines–conscripting glasses, bowls, plates, and platters for the purpose.  Measuring from the outside of the plate or bowl to the established border, I could fully determine if the circle was centered.

mandala backing ready to punchFrom these layered grid markings, I then hand-drafted the petal shapes, laying a sunflower, forget-me-not, zinnia, and lotus style petals over each other.  With my pattern complete, I inked the “official” lines and was ready to transfer the image onto the monk’s cloth backing.  My favorite method for this purpose is to clear off the bakery case at Farmstead Creamery, layer the cloth over the paper, and have at the transferring.

Here the design is on the backing, which has been stretched over the 18×18 frame.  The gripper strip barbed rim is protectively covered with the flannel rim to keep wrists and arms safe.  Now the piece was ready for punching.  But oh, the color choices!  While the design requires a minimum of four colors for full differentiation, I ultimately chose six, playing with the idea of the layered flowers on top of water lily/lotus leaves floating on the water.  While I would have colored it more intensely and with greater detail if I was just making this for my own interest, I wanted to work the colors in a way that would be attainable and approachable for students.  Therefore, using variegated yarns in the selection added interest and shading that otherwise would have required manually changing colors and making lots more choices along the way.

punching the mandalaMy colors selected, it was now time to start punching.  Nicely, this design is worked from the center outwards.  The border is worked next and finally the background.  In this picture, showing the side you punch from (which ends up being the back), you can see the direction of the stitches as the punch is worked across the surface.  For most of these shapes, I outlined the edge and then filled them in to the center.

For this project, I’m using the Oxford Mini punch needle.  This gauge uses worsted weight yarns and leaves a 1/4 inch loop, which works great for a pillow top.  The smaller gauge also allows for more design detail than in my first piece, which was worked with rug weight yarn and a much larger punch needle.  The mini glides through the monk’s cloth backing much easier than a rug punch needle (because of the smaller shaft diameter) and there’s much less guesswork with the stitch spacing–every hole in the direction of travel, and skip a hole between the rows of travel.  (It makes more sense when you’re working it than a description, so don’t worry if that sounded confusing.)

more punching progressAlmost finished!  Now the full color scheme is appearing, with the last corner of watery background to go.  Along the way, I’ve been weighting the balls of yarn before working a color section and then weighing them again after working that piece of the pattern–making notes about how much each element of the design used.  This will help me estimate the amount of yarn each student would need in order to complete this project successfully.  It’s certainly no fun to work on a project and run out of a color part-way!  I did that on my first one…had to wait a couple of weeks to get the rest of the blue…oh, waiting is hard when you’re fully engrossed in a project!

More updates on developing this student project to come!  If you would like to learn how to make this, send me a message on the contact page.

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Needle Felting Kits are Here!

bluebird needle felting kitSharing the creative experience of needle felting with students has been both creative and rewarding.  But what if I could package these classes into accessible forms that fiber enthusiasts anywhere could take home, gift, or share with family and friends?  It has been a real journey developing this product, informed by my teaching experience and what I would like to see, if I was the student, in a needle felting kit.

Here are some of the qualifiers:

  • Fun projects with a cute result that can be completed in 3 hours or less.
  • Video tutorial(s)–not a page with pictures and written instructions, as is common.
  • Vibrant colors using wool from our sheep.
  • Everything needed to start and complete the project.
  • Light on packaging materials (who wants to buy a bunch of stuff that just gets thrown away?).

For instance, many needle felting kits don’t include the foam work base or the sewing needle and thread for adding glass eye beads.  But what if you’re up at your Northwoods cabin or staying at a resort and want a fun project?  You might not have things like this ready for you to use.  Result?  Frustration!  The idea behind creating the kits is to add inspiration and creative fun, not invite frustration.  Ergo, the only thing the student needs is their hands and a scissors.

felting kit partsA real part of the adventure for me was filming the needle felting process–breaking the material into lessons, setting up to Go Pro, editing the videos.  Big thank you to Steve Barnes for helping that process happen and getting the tutorials online.  You can view the finished lessons on the Tutorials page of this site!

Another unique attribute used in my needle felting kits is a soft foam ball, upon which the bird body is built.  I have really come to love this method because it’s easy to spend an hour making a felt ball of the same size, when instead I can wrap the ball with roving and then get a running start at the fun parts of my project.  Students have appreciated this jump-start method as well, and the softness of the finished project is no different in-hand than if we had started with all wool.  It might be non-traditional, but that’s how innovations happen.

The Bluebird is only the first in a whole series of planned needle felting kits.  And as we slowly edge into spring on the farm, I know that I am looking forward to seeing the bluebirds again.  But why wait, I can needle felt my own right now.  You can too, with the kits available on my Etsy store.  Cheers to this new endeavor to help share the creative fiber experience, and happy felting!

finished felted bluebird

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Joys and Challenges of Weaving on a Round Loom

seahorse tapestry in studioIt is statistically likely that highly creative people have at least 15 projects laying about in various states of incompletion.  (I heard it explained once that creative people don’t have clutter, it’s just great ideas lying about.)  I’m certainly guilty of that situation, and now and then I get the itch to pick up a languishing project and make a point to finish it.  There’s a real glow when starting off on a new project, and sometimes the grind that ensues after the rush of vision and setup gets sidelined by the enthusiasm of the next new piece.

But  tapestry is incredibly patient, waiting without complaint until I return.  Part of the sidelining of this particular piece was the sheer volume of focused energy required to complete the unicorn tapestry “Deceiving the Hunters,” which left little room for working on the other tapestries in my studio.  But now it was time to pick up this little gem and figure out where I had left off.

Weaving on a round loom comes from the Navajo tradition and a technique I was eager to learn from mentor Fran Potter.  In order to weave a round tapestry, a strong round frame must be found–in my case, the metal base of a swivel chair.  After removing the cross-bars, giving it a good sanding and paint job, the next step was to create the warping board.  Tracing along the inside of the loom frame onto a sturdy board, I then drew out the warp spacing.  At each intersection of warp with frame circumference, that’s where a small nail was pounded into the board.  Zig-zagging the warp across the nails created the right shape and spacing, twining was added around the edge, and followed by lashing the twining and warp onto the frame all the way around with wax linen (a tedious process that’s pretty rough on the hands and fingers).  Then carefully, oh-so-carefully, the loom is lifted off of the warping board and is now ready for weaving.

seahorse cartoon

I’ve made several round loom pieces, which are charming not only for their very unique shape but also for the extreme portability of the loom itself!  I’ve even woven on mine while sitting in the passenger’s seat with the loom propped between my lap and the dash board.  For the cartoons, I hand draw them on paper that I then attach to cardboard to hold up behind the piece for reference, rather than lash the cartoon to the back of the tapestry.  This is due partly because this style of tapestry requires weaving from both ends and meeting somewhere in the middle-ish for finishing.  For this particular cartoon, I was playing with variations on a traditional Celtic zoomorphic seahorse with knotted mane.

I had previously started the fishy tail and a little of the knotwork–enough to get a sense of the coloration I had in mind.  Along with using traditional lopi wool, I was also blending in novelty fibers for texture and sheen.  I wanted to get a sense of the sparkle of the watery world, of scales.  No shiny novelty fibers are used in the “shadows” where knotted parts weave behind each other, adding to the sense of depth that will become more apparent as the piece grows.

seahorse progress detailBecause the space is so tight in a round loom and there are no “sides” to the tapestry, the stick shed has been reduced to a strand of round elastic, and the pull shed has been abandoned.  I pick up each warp thread with the weft on a tapestry needle, one at a time, which makes the process feel almost like a tapestry version of embroidery.  But oh the fun when I get to take off all that waxed linen and the piece stands on its own, round and beautiful.  More progress notes to come!

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Mr. Rooster Complete

mr rooster needle tapestryThere’s a special dance roosters have when they’ve found a delectable treat.  They’ll drop one wing and prance about in a tight circle, calling the ladies in.  As the hens rush to eat up the juicy worm or grasshoppers or spilled corn or whatever yummy bit he’s found, the rooster will back off and let them have it all, gloating over his success.

It was this same dance that I endeavored to capture in the punch needle tapestry “Mr. Rooster.”  Made almost entirely with wool yarns from our sheep, the piece utilizes the Oxford punch needles “mini” and “mini with heels” to add three-dimensionality.  The variegation in the dyed yarns adds texture and the sense of layered feathers, while the background is the natural white of sheep, so as not to compete with the warm and cool tones of the rooster.  Framed in barn red and wood tones, he’s leaping out of the piece–defying the frame with his jaunty stance.

The face of any subject is always one of the hardest parts–it’s the element we focus on most (as the viewer) when deciding whether the character feels “right” or worthy of sympathetic emotion.  With a rooster, the balance of wattles, comb, eye placement (and sheen,) and the shading and shaping of the beak and nose become critical in believability.  I wanted the rooster to appear as though his face was closet to the viewer (therefore larger), which would also allow for the most detail within the constraints of the medium.

mr rooster detailBecause punch needle rug hooking accommodates curves much more naturally than tapestry weaving, I wanted to bring out that sense of movement in his dance, the sweeping arc of his tail, and the flex of his wing.  Feathers have a very rhythmic pattern to their placement on a bird (try plucking one sometime and notice the patterning of the follicles in the skin), and yet the bird itself is moving organically–twisting neck, lifting feet, flexing tail.  Feathers overlap and shift across each other to accommodate this movement.  All of this detail was worked while still using only wool!

While Mr. Rooster does not have the sense of depth of some of my other pieces, it’s a charming study of the nature and character of a handsome rooster (and you know he knows it).  Chickens have been close to my heart since I was 11 years old, so it’s not a wonder that they made their way into this medium.  Hello Mr. Rooster.  Welcome to my body of fiber arts work.  Keep on dancing for those ladies out there who would love to eat that corn you found!

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

Needle Felting: Magic with Wool

needle felted pig and sheep

Wet felting can be fun in its own way, but it’s messy, takes up space, and is relatively unpredictable.  For me as a tapestry artist, a medium where the ability for precision is a cultivated skill, wet felting becomes very frustrating.  But when I tried needle felting two Januaries ago, I thought, “Yes, this is it!”  Working with pipe cleaner armatures, the class focused on forming creatures from wool roving using a single, barbed needle.  The process was dry, tidy, relatively controllable, and like magic.  That fiber arts magic of forming something from almost nothing (yarn, puffy wool) found yet another expressive outlet through this medium.

With needle felting, almost anything you can imagine can be created.  Barnyard friends that fit well in your hand, like this sheep and pig worked with the wire armature method, soon joined the creation experiment clutch.  But the wire can be frustrating as well–breaking needles if you strike it just wrong.  (It seems that frustration propels me to find new solutions in this story.)  Interestingly, when you’re needle felting, you work with a foam pad to protect your hand or the table top from the very sharp, barbed needle.  After a while, the wool will knit right into the foam, and you have to periodically rip it off and keep working.  Hmmm…

needle felted bluebirdWhat if, I wondered, you could actually use this tendency of the wool to knit into the foam to your advantage?  So I began with a foam ball as the core and developed my own songbird shape, which has been a popular hands-on class at Farmstead Creamery.  Starting with the ball saves considerable time from having to make that same form from wool, jump-starting the project to a much more interesting and creative phase.

More recently, the foam ball starter has also grown to include rabbits, sheep, ducklings, and other fun and adorable creatures.  I plan to soon create kits and video tutorials, which will be linked to this page!  It’s another exciting way to utilize the delightful wool from our sheep as well as encourage creative expression and three-dimensional thinking.  It certainly uses different parts of my brain than tapestry weaving (and with much quicker results).

needle felting studentsWhile I feel that I’m still just getting started with exploring the medium of needle felting, sharing what I’ve learned through area classes has been tremendously rewarding and a great way to practice the “learn and teach” model.  And what fun it is to see your project literally take shape!  Sharing the magic of fiber arts always leaves me with a great smile.

So if tapestry feels daunting but you want to jump into fiber arts, needle felting might be just the right mix of playfulness and technique study for you.  There really isn’t a wrong way to do it, so long as you keep your fingers away from that needle!  I’ll continue to post as the journey continues.  More felting adventures to come!

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

“Trout and Swallows” Recognized by The Oxford Company

trout and swallows tapestry

Each month, Amy Oxford of The Oxford Company has been requesting submissions of finished punch-needle rugs and wall tapestries.  My piece “Trout and Swallows” was the chosen submission for October.  Here is what appeared on their website:

Punched Rug Contest Monthly Prize Winner

Our Punched Rug Contest winner for October is Laura Berlage from Hayward, Wisconsin. Laura’s winning rug is called Trout and Swallows. Congratulations Laura! Your rug is gorgeous!

Trout and Swallows. Designed and Punched by Laura Berlage from Hayward, Wisconsin. 38” x 25”. Punched with a #14 fine “Mini” and #14 fine “Mini With Heels” Oxford Punch Needles. Wool, alpaca, Navajo churro wool, wool mohair blend, and gold shimmer thread on cotton monk’s cloth.

Laura tells us, “I made this piece as a wedding gift for my mother and Steve Barnes. Each element in the design has symbolic meaning, and the perspective of looking down on the stream from above offered a real creative challenge. People love the fish shadows! Like a pointillist painting, the further you step back from the piece, the more the three-dimensionality pops out at you.” 

trout detail

More of the Story Behind the Piece

As alluded in the description submitted, each element in the punch needle tapestry has a symbolic element, special to the celebration of Ann and Steve’s union.

Rainbow Trout—Strong reason to go forward with conviction.  Strong in family and morals.

Tree Swallow—Protection, warmth, home, and proper perspective.

Dragonfly—Personal maturity for understanding the deeper meaning of life,

Oak Tree—Strength, wisdom, maturity, and steadfastness.

Pine Tree—Truth and longevity.

Maple Tree—Wisdom of balance, promise, and practical magic.

Beech Tree—Tolerance, patience, and lightness of spirit.

Water—Life.swallows detail

The diversity of colors and fiber textures used offered many visual layering options when building the sense of depth in the piece.  For instance, the swallows are closest to the viewer, conceptually, followed by the leaves and dragonfly, then the level of the water, then the fish and stones in the stream.  The use of shadows and shading were critical in creating this sense of depth, as well as choices in where to use warm and cool color tones.

But the biggest challenge was in deciding how to represent the flowing water.  The fish are under the water, but I wanted them to be clearly visible.  In a shallow trout stream, the pure water often does not posses any color at all, except where it is disturbed in its course around objects.  This is how I came to using the gentle blue lines to show the movement and hint at the water being there–allowing the viewer to fill in the rest of the “idea of water” in their own mind.

Due to the size loom that I had, the piece had to be worked one-half at a time, starting with the trout side.  However, the center trout’s head was right at the loom edge and had to be worked once the piece was moved on the frame.  That meant saving bits of each of the shading colors and staggering the ends of rows I worked, so that there would be an even blending and no sense of a harsh splicing line to the viewer.

The two punch needle sizes add some actual physical depth.  The swallow, closer leaves, and dragonfly are made of longer loops than the rest of the piece, so they cast their own small natural shadows too.  Textile arts are never fully two-dimensional, which for me adds to their magic.

This was only the third piece I had ever attempted in this medium!  It is certainly one of my favorites and an inspiration for future works to come.

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

The Finished Masterwork: Deceiving the Hunters

finished tapestryThe Unicorn Tapestries have been a fascination for me since I was a teenager.  The design and inspiration for this tapestry, though, began in graduate school.  Lovingly called “the five-year project” that has just been completed for this entry in year seven, the layers of research, of storytelling, of technique studies and couture and culture are beyond the scope of this present entry.  I have endeavored to capture the highlights, while my studio website offers a more expansive and ongoing look into the project’s full backstory as an “alternative narrative” piece.

In the tradition of the Flemish tapestry studios at the turn of the 16th Century, after a long apprenticeship, a weaver would have to create their own “masterwork” to present to the guild.  If the piece was found to be of exceptional quality, the weaver would be allowed to join the exclusive guild and achieve “master of the craft” status.  As my most detailed, most researched, most immersive tapestry project to date, this is my “masterwork.”

pearl detailsRich in color and texture, sparkling with gilt thread to bring out my imagined view of the original tapestries when still new, “Deceiving the Hunters” is also studded with freshwater pearls and delicate beads—adding glint and three-dimensionality.  Even each choice of yarn has a backstory and mini adventure associated with it!  And the journey to see the original series that inspired this work?  All these and more are chronicled on this site.  Dig as deeply as you like.  The story continues!

hand and beard detail

jewel detail

tapestry portrait

 

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018

The Tapestry Stitchery

tapestry restorationThe weaving may be complete, but the Lady and Unicorn tapestry is not ready for the wall.  Unlike Navajo weaving where, once off the loom, only the corner tassels need tying and it’s ready to go, Flemish style tapestry (including techniques from the medieval period) utilize “slit weaving,” which allows the weaver to focus on a particular part of the tapestry (unlike Navajo, which works the entire width each row).  This “slit weaving” method, I have found, makes a crucial difference in my ability to focus on a highly complex portion of the textile image at a time, rather than trying to remember my shading and dynamic intent across the whole of the piece at once.

The trouble with slit weaving is that, when released from the tension of the loom, you can often stick your finger between the colors!  This does not make the piece durable or able to hold its own weight when hung.  This is especially true for Flemish style tapestries that, like “Deceiving the Hunters,” are woven on their side.  When mounted, the weft threads rather than the warp bear the weight.threads

So what to do with all those slits?  Working on the back of the piece, they have to be carefully hand stitched together using threads that match the colors of the slits being worked.  The goal is to create structure and rigidity but remain invisible, so that only the weaving shows on the front, not the stitching.

In Navajo textiles, the rule is that the special “interlock” method that allows these tapestries to come off the loom with no need for stitching is used whenever two colors touch for four or more row ends (eight rows).  So when stitching my Flemish tapestries, I follow this rule and stitch together any slits four or more loops high.  In a piece as complicated as “Deceiving the Hunters,” this was hundreds and hundreds of places!  From stabilizing the lady’s eyes to around every leaf to the strands in the unicorn’s mane and everywhere else, the task was considerably daunting.

back stitchingIn some places, the work had become so fine, the weaving involved wrapping the weft around a single warp for many rows.  To stabilize these parts, I would catch the loop on one side, go through the wrapped warp, then catch the loop on the other side and come back.  With one hand underneath the piece to feel if the needle was coming through and the other stitching away, endless hours of attention to detail ensued.  But the resulting strength, rigidity, and durability to the piece is certainly worth the effort!  After a careful steaming and securing the warp ends (as shown left), I stitched on the freshwater pearls carefully saved to adorn the lady’s headdress and sleeve cuffs.  Now it was time to add the backing to the tapestry.

working backingIt is not traditional in Navajo tapestry to sew on a backing, since these were originally designed to be worn as blankets, but I had read that medieval tapestries were given a linen backing and saw that other contemporary tapestry artists were still using this technique.  It helps to also disperse the weight of the piece and protect the back from moths that would attack the wool.  Using a quilting “running stitch,” the backing is basted onto the piece every two inches to keep it from “pillowing” out and act as a single textile.  A pocket at the top holds the wood slat that allows the tapestry to be hung evenly upon the wall.

backing detailStitching, stitching, stitching away…  I had a dent in my right middle finger for a week from pushing the needle through!  Who knows how many yards of thread the process required.  But as the last seam was complete and the eyelets screwed into the mounting wood, finally, finally the tapestry was ready for the wall.  It has been a long time coming for that moment when I could stand back and see the piece as a whole, in its rightful orientation (instead of sideways, as it was while weaving) in the way it will be viewed for the rest of its lifetime on this earth.  Time for a photo shoot!

Digiprove sealCopyright secured by Digiprove © 2018